Integration and Naturalisation tests, the new way to European Citizenship (INTEC)

About the Project

Some trends towards harmonisation in the development of legislative provisions and the implementation of measures aiming at the integration of third country nationals have become evident. EU Directives 2003/86/EC and 2003/109/EC make reference to the possibility of introducing integration measures or requiring immigrants to fulfil an integration condition in order to be entitled to a certain status of residence.

Little is known on the actual effects of this rather recent legislation on the behaviour of potential applicants and on the selective effects of obligatory integration requirements. The present project undertakes a first evaluation of the recent paradigmatic change in policy concepts concerning integration in nine Member States. The project provides detailed and reliable information on the content and the impact of compulsory elements in national integration policies. The main research questions focus on the reasons for introducing obligatory integration requirements, the way in which they were developed and put into practice, and the actual effects of the requirements for immigrants. Special attention is paid to the differences between integration requirements of a voluntary and compulsory nature.

The project analyses not only the integration courses or tests themselves and their effects, but also the contents of these tests and how they reflect on the knowledge of society. Furthermore it looks into the framework conditions shaping these measures – political debates and discourse as well as the influence of immigrant organisations. Researchers have done literature reviews, secondary data analyses and have conducted interviews with immigrants that have actually participated in the courses and tests, teachers of integration courses, staff members of immigrant organisations and officials responsible for the actual application of the integration or naturalisation legislation.

The project contributed to developing a network between the universities involved in the project by way of organising international seminars. The deliverables encompass a synthesis report comparing the approaches of the nine different Member States and nine national reports. Furthermore, a dissemination event presenting the results on Austria was organised on 26.11.2010, initiating interesting discussions among policy makers, scientists and representatives of civil society organisations.


Strik, Tineke/ Böcker, Anita/Luiten, Maaike/van Oers, Ricky (2010) The INTEC Project: Synthesis Report – Integration and Naturalisation tests: the new way to European Citizenship, A Comparative study in nine Member States on the national policies concerning integration and naturalisation tests and their effects on integration

Perchinig, Bernhard (2010) Country Report Austria, The INTEC Project: Integration and Naturalisation tests: the new way to European Citizenship (Download below)

Project Data

Country: Belgien, Dänemark, Deutschland, Frankreich, Lettland, Niederlande, Österreich, Ungarn, Vereintes Königreich
Persons involved: Barbara Liegl (Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeit), Bernhard Perchinig (Projektleitung/Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeit)
Contact persons: Barbara Liegl
Lead Organisation: Radboud Universität Nijmegen
Project start: 11/2009
Project end: 10/2010
Project completed: Yes
Funded by: European Commission, DG Justice, Freedom and Security; Research Platform Human Rights in the European Context, University of Vienna
Programme Line LBI-GMR: Asylum and Migration